下面Flyhoo小编为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文-International crisis management in the United States，供大家参考学习，这篇论文讨论了美国的国际危机管理。从行为学的角度看，危机管理是国家在重大国际危机时刻实施的战略选择。美国国际危机管理远远超越技术层次上的危机响应，而呈现鲜明的战略预谋、主动筹划、自我设计与实现的特点。美国国际危机管理特点与美国对外干预历史密切相联；美国国际危机管理实质是美国历史上重大关键时期特别是危机时刻的战略选择。
From the perspective of behaviorism,crisis management is a strategic choice adopted by a country at a time of major international crisis.Compositing the major crisis events and foreign military intervention in the 230 years since the founding of the United States,we find that the international crisis management of the United States goes far beyond the crisis response at the technical and tactical level,and presents distinct characteristics of strategic premeditation,active planning,self-design and realization.Specifically,American international crisis management mainly has the following five modes.
The United States is a country with a strong commercial foundation and strong utilitarianism and expansionism,which has a profound impact on the strategic behavior of the United States,making the strategic behavior of the United States show the characteristics of"putting more emphasis on interests than on righteousness".The pursuit of geopolitical and economic interests is the eternal strategic theme of the United States.This strategic characteristic is reflected in the following three characteristics of American international crisis management mode:the United States always ACTS in accordance with its own interests in international crisis management.In practice,an important prerequisite for crisis management in the United States must be profitable.When there is no interest or practical interest,the crisis is left to itself.Even if a management crisis is implemented,it will be suspended at a higher cost.In the early 1990s,for example,when somalia was hit by a humanitarian disaster,the United States initially intervened but eventually withdrew after several American soldiers were killed or wounded.In Iraq,by contrast,the United States has lost 5,000 or 6,000 troops but has been slow to withdraw.Even now,some 50,000"military observers"remain in Iraq.
We should seize and take advantage of international crises and turn them into opportunities for our own development and growth.Reading the history of the United States,we may find that the United States has developed from a small country with only 13 states to a great country across the north American continent.One of the keys lies in making full use of the fact that European powers have no time to ignore each other and expanding in the Americas,Asia Pacific and other weak regions in Europe.During the Napoleonic wars of the early 19th century,for example,the United States cleverly exploited political tensions in Europe to build alliances against Britain.This not only led to the great economic prosperity of the United States,but also to the acquisition of Louisiana from napoleon,doubling the territory.In the Spanish-American war at the end of the 19th century,the United States also took advantage of the contradiction of power between Britain and Spain,so that it won a landslide victory in the first major overseas adventure and won Cuba,the Philippines,Guam and other places,which extended the United States'power to the Pacific region at one fell swoop.
Where there are interests,there is crisis management.That is to say,the scope of American international crisis management and intervention expands correspondingly with the expansion of the scope of interests.Throughout the history of the United States,in order to control the world's main waterway,the United States instigated and publicly supported panama's independence in 1903,and seized the right to build the panama canal and lease the canal zone.In 1956,he actively intervened in the Suez Canal crisis and skillfully seized the leading power of the Suez Canal.In order to control the edge of Eurasia and prevent it from being controlled by hostile forces,it actively intervened in the Korean war and Vietnam war.In order to enter and control the core zone of world energy,control the lifeline of world economy,strategically induce and actively intervene in the gulf crisis in 1990;In order to prevent any hostile country or group of countries from ruling Eurasia,they tried their best to squeeze into the heart of Eurasia,contain and guard against the forces of other world powers,and launched the war in Afghanistan on the occasion of September 11th.In order to fill the"strategic vacuum"left by the retreat of the Soviet union and squeeze the strategic space of Russia,we actively used ballot boxes and street protests to create crises in the presidential elections of Georgia,Ukraine,kyrgyzstan and other countries,took the opportunity to launch a"color revolution"and bring pro-American regimes to power.In short,America's international crisis management has followed suit.
The United States has a typical tradition of"rule of law-morality"in dealing with international issues.The influence of this tradition on the international crisis management of the United States shows that the United States is good at borrowing international mechanisms and legal issues and likes to borrow the banner of international morality.
It emphasizes the"legitimacy"of actions and attaches importance to legal issues in crisis management.There are generally three kinds of laws and regulations that the United States emphasizes in crisis management:international law,international treaties or agreements and domestic law.International law is a code of conduct for countries to handle conflicts and differences in international relations.With the development of globalization,international law is playing an increasingly important role in international relations.The flexible application of international law can seek favorable situations and increase freedom of action.During the 1962 Cuban missile crisis,President Kennedy referred to the military blockade of Cuban waters as"quarantine,"according to American experts in international law.This approach not only achieved the purpose of military blockade,but also left room for the United States and the Soviet union to maneuver.According to international law,declaring a military blockade is equivalent to declaring war on the other side.International treaties or agreements often have strong international legal force.The United States'intervention in the china-japan diaoyu islands crisis is based on the us-japan security treaty,on the pretext that the scope of the treaty applies to the diaoyu islands.In the absence of appropriate international law and treaties,the United States often intervenes in international affairs on the pretext of domestic legislation,such as the issue of arms sales to Taiwan.
Good at borrowing international institutions and alliances to deal with crises.The United States also favors action under the authority of the United Nations,the international atomic energy agency and regional organizations such as NATO,the organization of American states and the six-party talks on the Korean nuclear issue.The use of actions authorized by the United Nations and other international organizations can prove the legitimacy of the United States'actions,disguise its true intentions,and place opponents in an"illegal"position.For example,after the outbreak of the Korean war in 1950,the United States used the name of the United Nations to organize the"United Nations army"to intervene in the Korean civil war,and called the actions of the north Korean and Chinese people's volunteer army"illegal aggression".For another example,during the 1962 Cuban missile crisis,the United States obtained authorization from the organization of American states and recognition by the United Nations under section 6 of the 1947 Rio treaty on mutual assistance and section 51 of international law before taking military action.Also,the United States has used the iaea to conduct repeated inspections of nuclear facilities in Iraq,Iran and north Korea.
The tradition of pragmatism makes the American international crisis management flexible,practical and utilitarian.That is,always act in accordance with the function,effectiveness and self-interest,which is manifested in changing political positions,not bound by any other factors such as covenant and morality,and pursuing double standards.
In disregard of international covenants and commitments,words may be broken.During the war of independence on February 6,1778,the United States and France signed the treaty of amity and commerce between the United States and France and the treaty of alliance between the United States and France.At the same time,France also used its influence to make Spain and the Netherlands enter the war.Russia,Prussia and Denmark declared their armed neutrality,which made the international situation develop rapidly in favor of the United States and finally won the victory of the war of independence.However,Britain and France went to war in 1793,and under the treaty of alliance of the United States and France of 1778,the United States was obligated to declare war on Britain.However,after listening to the opinions of the cabinet,President Washington of the United States announced the declaration of neutrality on April 22,assuring foreign governments of friendship and impartiality towards belligerents,and asking France to recall the minister genet who interfered with this neutrality policy.It is fair to say that the United States stood idly by while its French ally,who had helped it and is now in trouble,stood by.In addition,the United States pursues double standards in crisis management according to its own national interests.The United States,for example,has long known about Israel's nuclear weapons program but turned a blind eye to it.As for the nuclear programs of Iran and north Korea,the United States has been putting pressure on Iran through the international atomic energy agency,and even conspired with Israel to carry out preventive strikes against Iran's nuclear facilities.We will keep a close eye on the DPRK's nuclear program and list the DPRK as a key target of attack.
Crisis management methods are extremely flexible and pragmatic,and rarely subject to moral laws.American crisis management methods are diverse and flexible.From the perspective of classification,there are four major approaches to crisis management in the United States:first,diplomatic approaches.Including diplomatic protest,mediation,diplomatic intimidation,bargaining and concessions.Second,economic means.These include foreign aid and economic sanctions.Third,military means.Including military intimidation,military deterrence,the use of intelligence agencies to subvert,military invasion.Fourth,cultural means.Including propaganda broadcasting,cultural infiltration,"color revolution",direct subversion.The United States chooses different management methods according to its competitors.That is to say,for powerful opponents,they often emphasize limited objectives,prudent use of force,effective communication,concession and face-saving,leaving room,etc.,tend to use diplomatic means to solve crises backed by force,and emphasize bargaining.For weak enemies,if the diplomatic pressure on key interests cannot be solved,they tend to immediately wave a"big stick"or even start wars.The crisis management and intervention of the United States and the degree of its involvement are mainly based on the comprehensive balance of power comparison and interest involvement.
To adopt an instrumentalist attitude towards the international system without regard to international legitimacy when necessary.Typical examples are the 2003 Iraq war.During the Iraq crisis in 2003,the United States distorted facts,fabricated reasons and deceived international and domestic public opinion.In March 2003,the United States launched the Iraq war against widespread international opposition after it said it had evidence of saddam hussein's weapons of mass destruction and support for al-qaida.Since the end of major military operations on May 1,the United States has failed to produce conclusive evidence of its involvement in the war,and then blamed the American intelligence system for the fall on then-cia director George tenet.
The famous French writer verne once commented:"Americans are the greatest mechanical workers in the world,born to be engineers,just as Italians are born musicians and Germans are born philosophers.Niu also believes that the United States is a highly industrialized society,which attempts to seek technical solutions to any problems.The American tradition of engineering technology has an important influence on its international crisis management.
Tend to regard international crisis management as an effective and important way to deal with international problems.Wilson famously said to Theodore Roosevelt that"diplomacy is the management of international business".After the Cuban missile crisis of 1962,McNamara bluntly stated that"the strategy of the future may no longer exist,but crisis management will take its place."On the one hand,it highlights the American mindset of dwarfing strategy and reducing it to management.On the other hand,it implies that the United States often realizes the governance of international relations through crisis management.In recent years,American officials and academics have been strengthening international crisis exchanges,cooperation and negotiations with China.The essence of crisis management is to regulate,restrain and reduce the"destructive impact"that China's rise may bring.
Tends to rely on technological and weapons superiority to manage international crises."Americans have a lot of money and think that technological and resource advantages can make up for the mistakes made in the early stage of the crisis,when they just want to make a strong response but don't necessarily choose the best solution,"said xue litai,a researcher at Stanford university's center for international security and cooperation.But China's technology and resources are at a disadvantage,with little room for maneuver,and must follow the best plan,that is,'yunnan heavy initial war'.Of course,we have also seen that the United States did not use force as quickly,decisively,and consistently as it has in the multinational air campaign against Libya in March 2011,and continued to play a leading role.The reason lies in the fact that the United States was dragged down by the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan as well as the economic crisis,and its national strength and military strength were much less than before,thus seriously affecting the ability and willingness of the United States to intervene in international crises by force.
In addition,historically,the United States has succeeded in responding to and managing international crises,but failed in some cases,such as the Korean war and the Vietnam war.Others,such as the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq in 2001 over the 9/11 crisis,are mixed and inconclusive.To sum up,the characteristics of American international crisis management are closely related to the history of American foreign intervention.The essence of American international crisis management is the strategic choice in the critical period of American history,especially in the crisis.The motivation and characteristics of American crisis management behavior are deeply rooted in Americans'cognition of national interests and values.Finally,it needs to be pointed out that,fundamentally speaking,American international crisis management pursues profit maximization,so the target positioning is often too high,which will inevitably lead to the excessive expansionism of the United States,thus accelerating the decline of American hegemony.